Phenotyping Publications


Below is an intensive (176 slides) PowerPoint presentation on phenotyping and a companion 12-page pamphlet that should assist anyone interested in phenotyping with how to correctly and objectively apply the science to reach a reasonably accurate assessment of the content of an animal. It is important to note that phenotyping involves a complete and thorough assessment of an animal's overall morphology AND behavior and cannot be done from one or a few photos on the internet.

Also included on this page are articles discussing misrepresentation and the effects that misrepresenting the wolf content of an animal can have.



  • Wolf vs Dog: A Constellation of Traits

    This educational presentation was given by Kim Miles, NLA Director, to wildlife field officers during the annual training session of the Florida Fish & Wildlife Conservation Commission (FWC) on 3 August 2015. It addresses various aspects of domestication and physiology and how these factors can affect behavior and morphology, which are equally important in accurately assessing an unknown animal. We are offering it here as a comprehensive educational resource for assessing wolf and dog content of an animal.

    We would like to thank the many individuals who contributed and made this presentation possible. It is available for educational purposes; however, it is copyrighted and may not be altered or reproduced without written permission from Kim Miles and the National Lupine Association.

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  • Wolf, Wolfdog, or Dog? Phenotyping Canines!

    This pamphlet represents a companion resource to the more extensive (and intensive) educational presentation above. It provides some of the same information in a slightly different way and includes a guessing game at the end so you can test how well you have learned the concepts of phenotyping.

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  • Reflections on Redefinitions, Untruths & Misinformation: Countering the Propaganda with Science & Reason

    Breeders misrepresenting the content of their animals may result in serious negative or adverse impacts on both the animals and their new owners. This article from 2012 Florida Lupine News discusses the increasing problems with misrepresentation of lupine-type canines and the effects they can have.

  • The Other Side of Misrepresentation

    This article from 2012 Florida Lupine News was a companion to the above article. It provides a real-world example of how misrepresenting a higher content animal as a lower content animal has had on one owner.